~ Lauren Aiken is a sophomore at Hudson Valley Community College. She is majoring in Physical Education and will be graduating in May and then transferring to SUNY Cortland. Currently, she is the president of Sisters Incynch. Also, she is a captain of the HVCC Softball team. She will be presenting with fellow students and her professor from HVCC on the topic, “Visual Culture and Visual Representations of Race and Racism.”
~ Gracie Lyn Besse is a Junior Psychology major with minors in Peace Studies, Globalization Studies, and Multicultural Studies. She is very involved with Best Buddies (which is a club that spends time with persons with mental disabilities), as well as the Siena College Chamber Choir and Chorus. Her group presentation is titled: “Black Criminality as Portrayed in American Comedies,” which stems from her research in Dr. Anna Hill’s Race and Ethnic Relations class.
~ Chris Caimano
~ Taylor Carey is a senior, Sociology major/Criminal Justice minor at Siena College. Her other academic interests include economics and women’s studies. Outside of academics, Taylor is heavily involved in the equestrian community. She competes locally with her own horses in addition to riding on the Siena College Equestrian Team.
~ Tamu Chambers is a tenured member of faculty at Hudson Valley Community College in the History, Philosophy, and Social Sciences Department. Her courses include: Sociology, Cultural Diversity in American Society, African American History, African American Experience, African History I and II. She is the Club Advisor for Sisters Incynch. She is a Part-time lecture and curriculum designer for State University at Albany-Empire State College Center for Distance Learning – where she teaches the courses: Diversity in the Workplace, Human Resource Management, and Principles of Marketing – Master Diversity Trainer and curriculum designer for local, national and international non-profit organizations and corporation. She will be on a panel with her students on the topic, “Visual Culture and Visual Representations of Race and Racism.”
~ Alexandra Clark is a freshman at Siena College with a major in Management. She enjoys playing tennis as well as running in my spare time. As a work study student, she works in the president’s office as an assistant secretary. The title of her group’s presentation is “Portrayal of women in hip-hop/rap music,” which she will be presenting with classmates Imani Powell and Will Sollin. She is currently enrolled in the Sociology course 205-Race and Ethnic Relations with Dr. Hill.
~ Megan Crandall is a sophomore sociology major pursuing a pre-law certificate and planning to continue her education in law school, after graduating from Siena College. Her interests include riding and caring for my horses and farm animals at home. She will be presenting with classmates Natalie Topalain and Chris Caimano on their topic, “How Television Advertisements Reinforce Stereotypes.” This work stems from her research in the course she is currently enrolled, “Race and Ethnic Relations,” with Dr. Anna Hill.
~ Morgan DuBois is currently in the physical education program at Hudson Valley Community College, and will be graduating in May. She completed two seasons of cross country, and during the second season, she earned an all American title. In her free time she enjoys drawing and making videos. She will be presenting with fellow students and her professor from HVCC on the topic, “Visual Culture and Visual Representations of Race and Racism.”
~ Ashley Dunbar will be graduating in the fall with a degree in criminal justice. She is the Vice President of Sisters Incynch and a member of the Phi Theta Kappa honors society. She will be continuing her education in the field of criminal justice, with the goal of practicing law. She will be presenting with fellow students and her professor from HVCC on the topic, “Visual Culture and Visual Representations of Race and Racism.”
~ Patricia Erickson is a junior, majoring in Spanish and double minoring in Biology and Health Service Administration. On campus, she is part of Spanish Club and Ambassadors. On weekends, she works at Gap. In my free time, I enjoy running, yoga, reading, and traveling. Her presentation is entitled, “Comparison of Propaganda from the Franco and Hitler Regimes.”
~ Tiffany Gilmore is currently a student at Siena College and enrolled in Dr. Sudarat Musikwong’s 360: The Social Impact of Mass Media. The title of the presentation she will be giving is “Misrepresentation of Women in Media.”
~ Priscilla Grimes is am a sociology major and criminal justice minor, currently enrolled in Dr. Cherukuri’s Senior Capstone course. The title of her presentation is, “Education Behind Bars: Insights into correctional education.”
~ Douglas Harper will be the keynote speaker at the conference, talking about the field of visual sociology. Dr. Harper has specialized in visual sociology in six published books, for edited collections, and more than sixty papers, chapters and films. He has been a guest professor at the University of Bologna and the University of Amsterdam and has been invited to lecture at universities throughout the world, including the University of Moscow, the Uiversity of St. Petersburg, Goldsmiths, the University of Rome, and universities in the US including Harvard, Yale, Duke, N.Y.U. and Wellesley College. He an be contacted at email@example.com.
~Mathew Johnson is a qualitative sociologist, ethnographer, and current Director of the Siena College VISTA Program. His teaching focuses on community and international development, theory, social movements, the environment, and applied sociology. His research is focused on higher education, civic engagement, travel pedagogy, and indigenous movements. He is the recipient of numerous grants and the author of numerous conference papers. Dr. Johnson will be delivering the opening remarks at the symposium as well as co-modering a panel where his students will be talking about their travel course to Scotland.
~ David Lentivech
~ Amir Lewis is a senior Sociology major graduating in May 2014. He is currently enrolled in the Senior Capstone, the topic of which he will be presenting at the symposium, “Same Sex Marriage and the U.S. Military.”
~ Sarah Lieberman
~ Ian Lloyd is a Senior Political Science Major at Siena College graduating in May 2014. He works at State Employee Federal Credit Union (SEFCU) as a loan officer. In my free time I enjoy reading as well as watching and playing sports. His presentation for the conference is entitled, “The Choice: Birthing Practices in America.”
~ Sean McDonald is a junior political science major with a minor in management and sociology. He is involved with the McGuire society at Siena and work closely with admissions. The title of his presentation will be, “Black Criminality as Portrayed in American Comedies.” His research stems from his work in the course Race and Ethnicities, which he is currently taking from Dr. Hill.
~ Nichole Moocz is a Sociology major, and is earning two minors: one in Spanish and the other in Criminal Justice. She will be graduating from Siena College in May 2014. She has also served as a peer tutor and ELL mentor at Siena College’s Writing Center. In addition, she has also interned with the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants during the Fall 2013. She is currently enrolled in Senior Capstone, for which her presentation stems from her research entitled, “Systematic Denial of the Noncitizen: A Critique of the United States Immigration and Deportation Policy.”
Sudarat Musikawong, Ph.D. is an associate professor of Sociology at Siena College. She teaches courses on media studies, globalization and immigration. She will be moderating a panel comprised of students in her media studies course, entitled “Critique, Produce, Act: Sociology Student Research, Media Campaigns, and Video Production Projects.” She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Michael D. Naylor is an adjunct professor of history, philosophy, and social sciences at Hudson Valley Community College. His presentation is entitled, “The New Language of Our Culture: Texting.” He can be reached at email@example.com
~ Shannon O’Neill, Ph.D. is director of the Women’s Center at Siena College. She will be moderating the panel called “Gender Equality in the Nordic Countries – Travel Course.” She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
~ Jeff Osur is major in Sociology at Siena College. Some of his academic interests include government, the effects of technology on society, and current events in the Middle East. He is currently working on his current research project on the Syrian Mujahidin and the use of YouTube in spreading political messages. His presentation is ‘‘Oh our Islam here I am!’: The Global and Virtual Nature of Islamic Jihad in Syria.” He is currently enrolled in Dr. Musikawong’s 306: Research Methods II, where he is working on his current research project.
~ Imani Powell is currently a freshman at Siena College and is majoring in Sociology. She anticipates graduating from college in 2017. Right now, she is working at New Meadow where she works with autistic children. Singing is her hobby. She is presenting with classmates Will Sollin and Alexandria Clark on the presentation, “Portrayal of Women in Rap Music.”
~ Lauren Recchia is a senior Sociology major at Siena College, where she is working on her capstone these project on the empowerment of adaptive sports. Her title of the presentation is “Empowerment Through Adaptive Sports.” Lauren plans to graduate this May.
~ Delaney Rives is a junior student at Siena with a Sociology major and a Women’s Studies minor. She is a staff member at the Sr. Thea Bowman Center for Women, a certified Mentor in Violence Prevention, Peer Empowerment Educator (P.E.E.P.s) and a Girl Scout Leader for a troop at Hackett Middle School. Her research interests are feminist identity and activism, representation of women in the media and rape culture and she hopes to continue learning about and researching these topics in the future. Ideally, she would like to graduate and work with an organization that focuses on sexual assault and domestic violence prevention or comprehensive and progressive sex education for students. The title of Delaney’s presentation is “Got Equality? Feminist Activism and Identity Development on a Catholic College Campus.”
~ Adriana Schutz is a senior sociology major and Italian minor at Siena. Her presentation is called “Embracing Age: An Examination into the Multiple Facets of the Aging Experience.”
~Will Sollin is a Psychology Major, and involved with the Mentoring Program, History Club, and a writer for the Promethean (school newspaper). He is interested in working with adolescents and aspire to one day be a High School Guidance Counselor. He will be co-presenting, “Portrayal of Women in Hip-Hop/Rap music,” which will examine the objectification of women in this music culture. He is currently enrolled in Sociology 210: Racial Ethics, from which this research stems.
~ Katherine Stark is a junior Political Science major. She will be co-presenting on the panel called “Gender Equality in the Nordic Countries – Travel Course.” She studied abroad last semester in Serbian, Bosnia, and Kosovo and is interested in Gender Equality in the Nordic Countries because she thinks it’s important to look at other countries for an example that the US can base on. It is important to see what works and the Nordic countries are the prime example. Images can say a thousands words and how things are represented or marketed can tell a lot in how the underlying ideas and feeling. This is very prevalent with gender equality, therefore our presentation will include images and their symbolic meanings.
~ Dustin Stiffler is a graduating senior sociology major with a Spanish minor. He has been very active in the fair trade movement as well as at the Sr. Thea Bowman Center for Women throughout his time at Siena College. Dustin was fortunate to be able to study abroad for two semesters in Central and South America. While abroad, he learned of the colorful history of the countries he lived in, and today he is able to share some of what he learned while there. The title of his presentation will be “Historical Memory: The Lasting Effects of Conflict in Central and South America.”
~ Lori Taylor returned to college to pursue a career in Patient Advocacy. She will graduate in the spring of 2015 with a degree in Human Services. She intends to work with returning veterans and their families. She will be presenting with fellow students and her professor from HVCC on the topic, “Visual Culture and Visual Representations of Race and Racism.”
~ Natalie Topalian is a senior majoring in Environmental Studies and minoring in Sociology. She will be presenting with her group from Dr. Hill’s Race and Ethnic Relations course. The title of her presentation with fellow group members is “How Television Advertisements May Reinforce Stereotypes.” She has continued to explore the sociological impact of advertising in Visual Sociology and Anthropology 260 with Dr. Thompson. You can see her website at the following address: http://natalietopalian.wordpress.com/
~ Hillary Tuite is a senior majoring in Political Science with a Pre- Law Certificate here at Siena College. She is interested in the Nordic countries because they are more advanced than the United States in terms of gender equality. She believes the United States can benefit in many areas from learning about gender dynamics in the Nordic countries. She will be co-presenting on the panel called “Gender Equality in the Nordic Countries – Travel Course.”
~ M. Neman Tuite is currently a senior at Siena College and will be graduating in May 2014. He is majoring in Sociology with a specialization and minor in Spanish. The title of his presentation is “Muslim American Dual Identities: Are We Muslim or Are We American?”
~ Camille Tulet is a senior Sociology student with a business minor. She will be presenting her work “How does the Atlantic Yards Project affect the Brooklyn community socially and economically?”
Elizabeth Urresta is an Undeclared Liberal Arts Major from Siena College. As a freshman, she is taking the opportunity to explore the variety of disciplines offered at the the college. Her interests are in the creative arts, history, biology, and sociology. Her presentation, “On Fan Cultures” is part her ongoing class project in Visual Sociology with Dr. Thompson.
~ Black Criminality as portrayed in American Comedies ~ Presenter: Sean McDonald.
We are looking at how black men are portrayed as criminals in American comedies. We looked at three different movies, The Heat, Bad Boys 2, and Horrible Bosses. We looked to see what kinds of assumptions are made about these men and their criminal activity and how they relate to white men in these criminal activities.
~ The Choice: Birthing Practices in America ~ Presenter: Ian Lloyd
In the United States, there are over eleven thousand births each day. Eight percent of those eleven thousand births is a mother who knew her options for alternative birthing. That leaves ninety two of every one hundred mothers resorting to a hospital birth because she believed she had no other option. In hospitals medical and drug interventions are the norm, and the rate of C-sections has climbed exponentially over the last few decades, ending at our current rate of thirty-three percent of all births today. While the use of C-section is sometimes necessary for deliveries, it is often used as a primary option for delivering the child. The push for hospitalization and the use of medicinal drugs to speed up the delivery process is often based on economic and legal considerations. Birthing in the United States has focused on easing the job of professionals, rather than providing the proper desired service to mothers and babies.
~ Comparison of Propaganda from the Franco and Hitler Regimes ~ Presenter: Patricia Erickson
Propaganda is used to ignite reactions in individuals or groups of people- whether it is a positive or negative response. While most commonly thought of as only posters or signs, propaganda can take on many forms and is expressed through various means. Some ways propaganda can be conveyed is through cinema, architecture, and graffiti, as well as other art forms. In all of theses styles, there is deeper meaning than what is seen at face value. This study will examine the propaganda that was used by the Franco and Hitler regimes during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and World War II (1939-1945), respectively. Through an analysis of colors, artistic style, and symbols found in the various forms of propaganda, a comparison of the similarities and differences will be made between the propaganda used by the Franco and Hitler regimes.
~ Education Behind Bars: Insights into correctional education ~ Presenter: Priscilla Grimes
Approximately two million men and women are presently imprisoned in our nation’s prisons. There are competing debates on whether or not formal education is an equalizer. Mainstream criminological research documents that correctional education reduces recidivism and helps inmates’ form stronger ties with their families and communities. Based on interviews with the formerly incarcerated, this research examines the transformative power of correctional education. In addition, this research also examines the perceptions of Siena faculty who have taught at the Mt McGregor correctional facility towards correctional education.
~ Embracing Age: An Examination into the Multiple Facets of the Aging Experience ~ Presenter: Adriana Schutz
As the baby boom generation is entering their older years, the number of elders in the United States is increasing. It is therefore critical to study aging. Based on surveys and interview data from elders in two senior centers in the Capital District Area, this study examines both individual and structural factors that impact aging.
~ Empowerment Through Adaptive Sports ~ Presenter: Lauren Recchia
Examining both sports and disability can transform the ‘abnormal’ body to a body that has something to teach about how social identities are intertwined with physicality. The term adaptive sport refers to a sport that has been designed and modified especially for an athlete or group of athletes with a disability. Using interview data from impaired athletes, the present study will examine the relationship between participation in adaptive sports and empowerment.
~Fighting for Freedom and Justice: Studying the Civil Rights Movement~ Presenters: Megan Crandall, Deanna Danzy, Susana Diaz, Monique Jenkinson, Jabbar Johnson, and Shae-Leigh Pararella-Voorhees and Dr. Paul Murray (moderator).
Our course on the Civil Rights Movement highlighted some of the Movement’s highs and inhumane lows of American society. Students in the course compiled a video to share what we learned this semester. The personal stories of Civil Rights activists improved our understanding of the challenges and triumphs of the Movement. This video portrays some of the unsung heroes of the Movement and tells their stories that are not widely known. This video conveys the amazing experiences, songs and knowledge these guests shared with the class.
~ Gender Equality in the Nordic Countries – Travel Course~ Presenters: Katherine Stark, Hillary Tuite, and Shannon O’Neil (moderator).
This course examines the gender-friendly policies and cultural norms of the Nordics countries. The Nordic countries are consistently rated as the most gender equal countries in the world (Iceland #1, Finland #2, Sweden #4, U.S. #22). The presentation examines visual representations of gender and gender equality in Nordic countries. The course culminates with travel to Iceland, Sweden, Estonia and Finland after graduation, in May 2014.
~ Got Equality? Feminist Activism and Identity Development on a Catholic College Campus~ Presenter: Delaney Rives
The purpose of this project was to better understand feminist activism as seen through the lens of students, faculty, staff and administration at a small, Catholic college in upstate New York. Focusing on the students, the project aimed to determine if there is an intersection of gender and sexuality in how one accepts feminism and in what context does a student’s identity affect their student life outside of the classroom. Faculty and administration were interviewed to determine what specific campus policies affect college wide advocacy for movements such as feminism. I used activist ethnographic methods to determine the campus climate and focused on the responses and reactions to a gender social mass media campaign I titled, “Got Equality?”. This project was designed to introduce non-feminist identifying students to issues of feminist concern in order to take away the negative connotations attached to the idea of identifying as a feminist. Many stereotypes of this movement incorrectly label feminists as bra-burning, man hating, non-shaving radical women, and this gender justice project was intended to challenge this narrative. Several, semi-structured, in-depth interviews occurred place after each of the events associated with the media campaign to further determine the acceptance, tolerance or rejection of these ideas and the feminist movement as a whole.
~ Historical Memory: The Lasting Effects of Conflict in Central andSouth America ~ Presenter: Dustin Stiffler
Dustin Stiffler spent two semesters in Latin America, with one semester in Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua) and one semester in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In each country, he learned of the history of armed conflict and political corruption. The juxtaposition of that historical knowledge, and the immersion into local culture helped for Dustin to understand the historical memory of the communities in which he lived. Through meetings on his programs and personal interests, Dustin saw how the countries he visited are still healing from their colorful past, but also choose to confront the present and future with strength and hope.
~ How does the Atlantic Yards Project affect the Brooklyn community socially and economically? ~ Presenter: Camille Tulet
Brooklyn, one of New York City’s five boroughs has been gaining popularity and publicity in the past decade as families are moving in and out from Manhattan due to ever rising housing costs. The changing demographics of Brooklyn have gone hand in hand with the gentrification and redevelopment of many neighborhoods. The Atlantic Yards Project in Brooklyn, which was previously un-used railroads and a semi-run down space is an example of large changes being within Brooklyn. The Atlantic Yards is a mixed use developmental project t including 16 buildings for residential, office, retail, community facilities, possibly hotel use and an allready completed sports Arena. This paper will focus on The Atlantic Yards Project as an example of urban redevelopment and the changes this brings to surrounding neighborhoods. My research question will explore how the Atlantic Yards Project affects Brooklyn socially and economically. I will hope to discover if the Atlantic Yards Project will deliver all of its promises to the Brooklyn community.
~ How Television Advertisements May Reinforce Stereotypes ~ Presenters: Natalie Topalian, Chris Caimano, Megan Crandall
Modern day advertising is often riddled with deep rooted and racially motivated stereotypes. We will be examining how different racist stereotypes are conveyed in advertisements. Through the examination of several previously conducted studies, we hope to expose the stereotypes embedded in modern day advertising and in turn, examine how these stereotypes negatively affect society.
~ Misrepresentation of Women in Media~ Presenters: Tiffany Gilmore, Katie Considine, and Sudarat Musikawong (moderator).
In today’s society, standards of beauty are presented through popular forms of mass media. The media’s portrayal of women often creates social comparison, cultivation and self-schema, as well as several stereotypes which affect race and sexuality. For our media justice project, we address the misrepresentation of women in the music industry. Specifically, we explore how well-known women in the entertainment media industry obtain their social status, how they maintain their status and stay relevant, and how they create their image that impacts the music industry. For example, we question whether or not women have to purposely be provocative and revealing in order to receive attention and stay in the lime light. We also address why women must build their ‘brand’. This questions why women must create an ideal image that appeals to the public sphere. For example, do they have a certain hairstyle, body piercings, wear certain clothing? Or must they be a specific size/ body type, race, sexual orientation, social class, or age to fulfill the expectations of society? To achieve their ideal look, women will go under extreme bodily changes including starvation, surgery, and bleaching. We examine different media forms that are familiar to the college students. We asked our fellow students about their perspective on how they view certain women in the music industry (Niki Minaj, Miley Cyrus, NeNe Leaks, etc).
~ Muslim American Dual Identities: Are We Muslim or Are We American? ~ Presenter: Neman Tuite
Many approximations of the Muslim American population exist and are continually fluctuating. In addition, the immense racial and ethnic diversity that exists within the Ummah[i] makes it incredibly difficult to estimate the actual number of Muslim Americans living within the United States.It is credible to say that there may be over 100 subgroups of Muslims who have migrated to the United States over the different migration phases over the years (Ghayur 1981). Remarkably, the number of individuals who self identify as Muslim-Americans is far less than what one would imagine. Therefore there is an inequity between the self-identification of the religious identity of Muslims and the national identity as American. Are such social identities fundamentally in conflict with one another? Scholars justify the claim inequity between these identities through theories of citizenship, Cultural Hybridity and the religious concepts concerning the Adobes of Islam. This study focuses on the following questions surrounding the idea of the dual social identities of Muslims and Americans faced by individuals residing in the United States; what does it mean to be a Muslim-American? How do Muslim-Americans balance the dual identities of being Muslim and American? What factors contribute to how Muslim-Americans balance their dual social identities? These questions are gathered with the eagerness of uncovering the sociological reasoning behind the inequity of the number of individuals simultaneously self-identifying as Muslims and American.
~ The New Language of Our Culture: Texting ~ Presenter: Michael D. Naylor, HVCC.
This presentation will give rise to the creation of texting and how it will soon replace the casual conversation between man and women, and ultimately, lay down the foundation for our future generations. This paper will present how texting has taken over our younger generation, like music and drugs of the 60’s. ‘Cause without texting we do not feel humanized or alive, and it doesn’t matter where we are; in the car, at the mall, on the toilet, or more voyeuristically in the shower. This paper will make you laugh, and cry, and reach into your pocket to give your phone a hug and a stroke, to assure it that you will never let it go! 🙂
~ Oh our Islam here I am! : The Global and Virtual Nature of Islamic Jihad in Syria~ Presenter: Jeff Osur
My project is a work-in-progress that studies and analyzes the ideologies and motivations of the Syrian Mujahidin through their own alternative narrative(s). I focus on three groups: Ahrar al-Sham, The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and Jabhat al-Nusra. I utilize online, open source material as an access point into their lifeworld, specifically videos produced by and about the groups on YouTube (www.youtube.com) and LiveLeak (www.liveleak.com). I use textual and content analysis of what is told, heard, and seen to ask: What drew these men to become political and religious dissidents and fight as Mujahidin? How do they see themselves and how do they respond to being labeled terrorist by the West? How does the dissemination of electronic media promote and reinforce their cause on both a regional and global level?
~ On Fan Cultures ~ Presenters: Elizabeth Urresta
This abstract is pulled from the now work in progress short documentary film on fan subcultures. Media Studies recognize the effects that advertisements and TV shows have on general society, but fan culture represents the portion of society that daily interacts with the media they are interested in and in the process form a community surrounding their point of interest. While conducting interviews, the focus was on how and why fans interact with media in such a way and how that might affect them. How might fans unconsciously absorb the messages of the media and the fan community around them? And what might the impact of their community be? (The footage is taken from a specific convention: SpringFestNY,March 15th.)
~ Portrayal of Women in Rap Music~ Presenters: Imani Powell, Alexandra Clark, Will Sollin and Anna Hill (moderator).
This project is about how women are being portrayed in rap music today. In this presentation, you will see how black rappers are not always the ones to blame for the misogny that goes on in music videos and lyrics. Race is not a factor when it comes to objectifying women like many people may assume. How are younger generations impacted by the music and images? How can these images and lyrics be moderated appropriately for the youth?
~ Systematic Denial of the Noncitizen: A Critique of the United States Immigration and Deportation Policy ~ Presenter: Nichole Moocz
Nichole’s thesis takes a critical approach to address the effects of U.S. immigration policy on families. In particular, she argues that arbitrary U.S. policy, the idea of neoliberalism, as well as the distinction between the citizen and noncitizen create a context which illegitimates noncitizens. Through a combination of personal interviews and public testimony, she explores ideas of legality, neoliberalism, activism, health and welfare, and gender to understand the various effects of deportation on immigrant families. Additionally, she incorporates a brief legal analysis of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 and the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act of 2013.
~ Visual Culture and Visual Representations of Race and Racism~ Presenters: Tamu Chambers, Lauren Aiken, Ashley Dunbar, and Lori Taylor.
In the study of sociology, symbolic interactionsism is a term coined by Herbert Blumer, a former student of renowned sociologist George Herbert Mead. (Blumer, 1969). Similar to visual and digitial culture, the sociological theory explains that human interaction and communication is facilitated by words, gestures, and other symbols that have acquired conventionalized meanings. The narrator will introduce sociological concepts and the impact of visual images. In their own voices, students express the impact of negative symbols and words that permeate visual culture and visual representations of race and racism through contemporary examples of socially constructed microagressions that many minorities, more specifically African Americans are compelled to live within everyday life. “Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults towards people of color.“ -Chester M. Pierce in 1970